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 Egyptian Cities
       
Aswan
     
 

Situated on the Eastern bank of the Nile, 899 km south of Cairo , Aswan links Egypt with the sister country of Sudan. it is the gate of the African Continent and as such is an important commercial centre .Aswan is considered the most beautiful winter resort not only in Egypt but also on the whole world as it is distinguished by its fascinating nature and serenity far from the bustle of cities and its warm weather witch is characterized by dryness and sunshine throughout the year.

 
   
   
   
 

You can spend a pleasant time wandering along the Nile Cornish where the sandy tourmaline desert merges with the granite rocks around aquamarine isles covered with palm trees and plants. You can also take a felucca on the Nile at sunset. Or a tour in the market which abounds in handicrafts local products, spices and Perfumes  

Aswan is the base for excursions to temples of Philae and Kalabsha, the high dam, the unfinished obelisk and the Nubian Museum as well as the Elephantine, Kitchener islands.

The main attractions on the west bank of the river are the Mausoleum of Akha Khan and the desert monastery of St.Simon.

It can also serve for day-trips to Darow Camel Market, Komombo, Edfu and Esna and above them all the excursion to Abu Simbel either by road or by flight or even with Nile Cruise which sail in Lake Nasser until Abu Simbel.

 

 
                       
 places to go
             

  Kom Ombo Temple

             

While the stone differs from that of all the other temples perhaps because it was covered with sand for so long, the outstanding feature of the Kom Ombo Temple is the unusual, even unique, ground plan, the result of the unification of two adjacent temples, each dedicated to a distinct divinity: the crocodile-headed Sobek, god of fertility and creator of the world, and Haroeris or the ancient falcon-headed Horus, the solar war god.

This was why the temple was called both "House of the Crocodile" and "Castle of the Falcon". An imaginary line divides the temple longitudinally into two parts, each with its entrance, hypostyle halls, chapels, etc. The right part of the temple was consecrated to Sobek, the left to Haroeris, whose winged disk that protects from all evils is depicted over all the entrance portals. This temple, too, was the work of the Ptolemies who built it on the site of a much older and smaller sanctuary of which little remains.
The actual temple was started by Ptolemy VI Philometor in the early second century BC. Ptolemy XIII built the outer and inner hypostyle halls. The outer enclosure wall and part of the court were built by Augustus sometime after 30 BC, and are mostly gone. There are also tombs from the Old Kingdom in the vicinity of Kom-Ombo village.
In ancient times, sacred crocodiles basked in the sun on the river bank near here. The Temple was used to store mummified crocodiles form the nearby animal necropolis and a few sarcophagi The Temple has scant remains, due first to the changing Nile, then the Copts who once used it as a church, and finally by builders who used the stones for new buildings.
In the southwest corner of the pronaos is the one column that does not echo the duality of the temples. Here, there are scenes depicting purification of the King, his coronation and his consecration of the Temple. The ceiling has astronomical images.
The hypostyle hall has papyrus capitals on the columns.
Here, there is an inventory of the scared places of Egypt, the gods of the main towns and the local and national festivals.
In the anti chamber, there are scenes depicting the goddess Seshat launching the building of the temple, followed by a scene of the completed temple with the king throwing Natron in a purification ceremony.[Statues to the gods and the builders of the temple once occupied the net room just before the sanctuaries. The ceiling of the pure place to the north still remains with an image of Nut. There is little left of the sanctuaries
the pervasive presence of Nile, where the feluccas silently glide over the water, and of the deep green fields which accentuate the blue of the sky, accompany your visit to Kom Ombo

                       
 
Abu Simbel
                 

Situada 280 km al sur de Aswan, los dos templos de Abu Simbel son los más magníficos templos en el mundo.
El primer templo fue construido por el poderoso faraón Ramsés II, y el otro para su esposa la reina Nefertari
En 1964 fueron amenazadas por sumersión en el Lago Nasser debido a la construcción de la Alta Presa.
El Gobierno de Egipto consiguió el apoyo de la UNESCO para la remoción y reconstrucción de los dos templos.
Los templos fueron desmontados y recaudó más de 60 metros hasta los acantilados de arenisca donde se han construido más de 3000 años antes.
El proyecto se completa con un equipo internacional de especialistas en 3000, cortar el Templo en 2000 piezas, talladas todo el Templo fuera del acantilado y ambos acantilado y reconstruido Templo cerca.
El proyecto tomó 40 millones de dólares para completar, uno de los más ambiciosos proyectos de reubicación en la historia.

 

                       
 

High Dam

                 

Located near Aswan, the world famous High Dam was an engineering miracle when it was built in the 1960s. It contains 18 times the material used in the Great Pyramid of Cheops.The Dam is 11,811 feet long, 3215 feet thick at the base and 364 feet tall.Today it provides irrigation and electricity for the whole of Egypt and, together with the old Aswan Dam built by the British between 1898 and 1902, 6km down river, wonderful views for visitors.

From the top of the two Mile long High Dam you can gaze across Lake Nassar, the huge reservoir created when it was built, to Kalabsha temple in the south and the huge power station to the north.
The High Dam created a 30% increase in the cultivatable land in Egypt, and raised the water table for the Sahara as far away as Algeria.
The electricity producing capability of the Dam doubled Egypt's available supply.
The High Dam added a whole new aspect to Egypt and a new environment as well.
The lake is some 500 miles long and at the time it was built, if not now, was the world's largest artificial lake.

Nubian museum

 

The Nubia Museum harbors the history of the "Land of Gold" as the word Nubia in the Hieroglyphic, language of ancient Egypt in which pictorial symbols are used to represent meaning and sounds, means the "Land of Gold"...Hence, this land, over times, was abounding in monumental treasures. The Nubia Museum, in Aswan, as a matter of fact, is deemed to be one of the most important Egyptian museums as it is the only unique open museum of its kind and ranks tenth in the list of the museums inaugurated in Egypt over the past three years. It is located in Aswan on an area of 50,000 square meters, 7000 of which are excluded to building, while the rest designed to be the yard of the museum.

 

 

Preparing this museum lasted for ten years, all dedicated for hard work to come up with such lovely museum. Let alone, it stands as a wonderful model of international cultural cooperation representing in United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization(UNESCO) which replied the request of the Egyptian government to salvage the monumental sites in Nubia, hence, the area between Aswan and the Sudan was inundated by the Nile waters especially after completing the Aswan Dam. On February 4th , 1986, the foundation stone of the International Museum of Nubia was laid down . building has three floors for displaying and housing, in addition to a library and information center. The largest part of the museum is occupied by the monumental pieces, reflecting phases of the development of the Nubian culture and civilization. 
Three thousands pieces of antiquities , representing various ages; Geological, Pharaonic, Roman, Coptic and Islamic, were registered.It houses the statute of Ramsis II, which was laid at the very forefront of the Museum, statute of Amenras the spiritual wife of Amen, she is of Nubian origin. It, also, has the head of the Shpatka, of the Nubian origin, made of rosy granite, head of black granite of Tahraqa, the Nubian King, whose reign during the 7th century BC was said to be full of prosperity. There is a temple of his name with gold-plated pillars.
There are, also, four mummies for nobles, which were found in Kashmatkh town in Nubia. The museum, as well, houses several models and styles of the Nubian heritage, the panorama of the Nile, depicting live image of the River Nile streaming through its banks. There is also a model for the Nubian-style house, typically copied to mirror the nature of life in Nubia. All pieces exhibited in the museum reflect the character of the Nubia over history and display how it merged with the Islamic civilization on one hand and the mother civilization of Egypt on the other.
So, the museum of Nubia plays vital role not only at the level of promoting Nubia to the entire world but also at the level of maintaining monuments and supporting researchers, interested in Nubia, from around the globe.

       
Darwa Camel market
 
 

The main and really only attraction of this town just south of Kom Ombo is the camel market.

Sometimes up to 2,000 camels are bought to the market, which is usually liveliest on Sundays.

Most of the camels come from the Sudan in caravans up to Abu Simbel, where they are trucked the remainder of the way.

Kalabsha temple

 

Kalabsha Temple originally built at Kalabsha (Talmis) was moved to its present location at New Kalabsha (Chellal) in 1970, together with other monuments from Nubia. This sandstone edifice was built by the Roman Emperor Octavius Augustus (30 to 14 BC) and dedicated to the fertility and Nubian Solar deity known as Mandulis (Merwel who was the Nubian counterpart of Horus).

 
 
 

It was the largest free-standing temple of Egyptian Nubia and the design of Kalabsha Temple is classical for the Ptolemaic period with pylons, courtyard, hypostyle hall and three room sanctuary.

However, the Pylon is offset, which creates a trapezoid in the courtyard beyond. It was built on the site of an earlier structure built by Ptolemy IX as evidenced by a chapel. There is also a small chapel and gate on Elephantine Island from Kalabsha, and a gate built by Augustus were given to the Agyptisches Museum in West Berlin. The courtyard inside the pylon once had columns on three sides.

There is also a small chapel, which can be reached from stairs in the first chamber, which then descend from the roof into the chapel set inside the wall. As you leave the temple, be sure to note the rear wall with images of Mandulis with his vulture-feathered cloak.

         
 
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